What is

What is

May 18, 2018 is a digital subscriber line (DSL) protocol standard for local loops shorter than 500 m, with performance targets between 150 Mbit/s and 1 Gbit/s, depending on loop length.[1] High speeds are only achieved over very short loops. Although was initially designed for loops shorter than 250 meters, Sckipio in early 2015 demonstrated delivering speeds over 100 Mbit/s nearly 500 meters and the EU announced a research project.[2]

Formal specifications have been published as ITU-T G.9700 and G.9701, with approval of G.9700 granted in April 2014 and approval of G.9701 granted on December 5, 2014.[1][3][4][5] Development was coordinated with the Broadband Forum's FTTdp (fiber to the distribution point) project.[6][7]

The letter G in stands for the ITU-T G series of recommendations; fast is an acronym for fast access to subscriber terminals.[8] Limited demonstration hardware was demonstrated in mid-2013.[9] The first chipsets were introduced in October 2014, with commercial hardware introduced in 2015, and first deployments started in 2016.[10][11][12]





Frequency spectrum of the standard compared to VDSL2

In, data is modulated using discrete multi-tone (DMT) modulation, as in VDSL2 and most ADSL variants.[13] modulates up to 12 bit per DMT frequency carrier, reduced from 15 in VDSL2 for complexity reasons.[14]

The first version of will specify 106 MHz profiles, with 212 MHz profiles planned for future amendments, compared to 8.5, 17.664, or 30 MHz profiles in VDSL2.[1] This spectrum overlaps the FM broadcast band between 87.5 and 108 MHz, as well as various military and government radio services. To limit interference to those radio services, the ITU-T G.9700 recommendation, also called, specifies a set of tools to shape the power spectral density of the transmit signal;[8] G.9701, codenamed, is the physical layer specification.[6][15] To enable co-existence with ADSL2 and the various VDSL2 profiles, the start frequency can be set to 2.2, 8.5, 17.664, or 30 MHz, respectively.[1]

Duplex[edit] uses time-division duplexing (TDD), as opposed to ADSL2 and VDSL2, which use frequency-division duplexing.[1] Support for symmetry ratios between 90/10 and 50/50 is mandatory, 50/50 to 10/90 is optional.[1] The discontinuous nature of TDD can be exploited to support low-power states, in which the transmitter and receiver remain disabled for longer intervals than would be required for alternating upstream and downstream operation. This optional discontinuous operation allows a trade-off between throughput and power consumption.[1]

Channel coding[edit]

The forward error correction (FEC) scheme using trellis coding and Reed–Solomon coding is similar to that of VDSL2.[1] FEC does not provide good protection against impulse noise. To that end, the impulse noise protection (INP) data unit retransmission scheme specified for ADSL2, ADSL2+, and VDSL2 in G.998.4 is also present in[1] To respond to abrupt changes in channel or noise conditions, fast rate adaptation (FRA) enables rapid (<1 ms) reconfiguration of the data rate.[1][16]


Performance in systems is limited to a large extent by crosstalk between multiple wire pairs in a single cable.[13][14] Self-FEXT (far-end crosstalk) cancellation, also called vectoring, is mandatory in Vectoring technology for VDSL2 was previously specified by the ITU-T in G.993.5, also called G.vector. The first version of will support an improved version of the linear precoding scheme found in G.vector, with non-linear precoding planned for a future amendment.[1][13] Testing by Huawei and Alcatel shows that non-linear precoding algorithms can provide an approximate data rate gain of 25% compared to linear precoding in very high frequencies; however, the increased complexity leads to implementation difficulties, higher power consumption, and greater costs.[13] Since all current implementations are limited to 106 MHz, non-linear precoding yields little performance gain. Instead, current efforts to deliver a gigabit are focusing on bonding, power and more bits per hertz.


In tests performed in July 2013 by Alcatel-Lucent and Telekom Austria using prototype equipment, aggregate (sum of uplink and downlink) data rates of 1.1 Gbit/s were achieved at a distance of 70 m and 800 Mbit/s at a distance of 100 m, in laboratory conditions with a single line.[14][17] On older, unshielded cable, aggregate data rates of 500 Mbit/s were achieved at 100 m.[14]

Service rate performance targets over 0.5 mm straight loops[A][1]
DistancePerformance target[B]
<100 m, FTTB500–1000 Mbit/s
100 m500 Mbit/s
200 m200 Mbit/s
250 m150 Mbit/s
500 m100 Mbit/s[18]
  • A A straight loop is a subscriber line (local loop) without bridge taps.

  • B The listed values are aggregate (sum of uplink and download) data rates.

Deployment scenarios[edit]

The Broadband Forum is investigating architectural aspects of and has, as of May 2014, identified 23 use cases.[1] Deployment scenarios involving bring fiber closer to the customer than traditional VDSL2 FTTN (fiber to the node), but not quite to the customer premises as in FTTH (fiber to the home).[12][19] The term FTTdp (fiber to the distribution point) is commonly associated with, similar to how FTTN is associated with VDSL2. In FTTdp deployments, a limited number of subscribers at a distance of up to 200–300 m are attached to one fiber node, which acts as DSL access multiplexer (DSLAM).[12][19] As a comparison, in ADSL2 deployments the DSLAM may be located in a central office (CO) at a distance of up to 5 km from the subscriber, while in some VDSL2 deployments the DSLAM is located in a street cabinet and serves hundreds of subscribers at distances up to 1 km.[12][14] VDSL2 is also widely used in fiber to the basement.[20]

A FTTdp fiber node has the approximate size of a large shoebox and can be mounted on a pole or underground.[12][21] In a FTTB (fiber to the basement) deployment, the fiber node is in the basement of a multi-dwelling unit (MDU) and is used on the in-building telephone cabling.[19] In a fiber to the front yard scenario, each fiber node serves a single home.[19] The fiber node may be reverse-powered by the subscriber modem.[19] For the backhaul of the FTTdp fiber node, the Broadband Forum's FTTdp architecture provides GPONXG-PON1EPON10G-EPON, point-to-point fiber Ethernet, and bonded VDSL2 as options.[7][22]

Former FCC chief of staff Blair Levin has expressed skepticism that US ISPs have enough incentives to adopt technology.[23]


Bell Labs, Alcatel-Lucent proposed the system concepts of XG-FAST, the 5th generation broadband (5GBB) technology capable of delivering a 10 Gbit/s data rate over short copper pairs. It is demonstrated that multi-gigabit rates are achievable over typical drop lengths of up to 130 m, with net data rates exceeding 10 Gbit/s on the shortest loops.[24]

The XG-FAST technology will make fiber-to-the-frontage (FTTF) deployments feasible, which avoids many of the hurdles accompanying a traditional FTTH roll-out. Single subscriber XG-FAST devices would be an integral component of FTTH deployments, and as such help accelerate a worldwide roll-out of FTTH services. Moreover, an FTTF XG-FAST network is able to provide a remotely managed infrastructure and a cost-effective multi-gigabit backhaul for future 5G wireless networks.[24][25][26] internet service providers[edit]

On 2016-10-18 Swisscom (Switzerland) Ltd launched in Switzerland after a more than four-year project phase. In a first step will be deployed in the FTTdp environment. Swisscom works together with its technology partner Huawei which is the supplier of the micro-nodes (DSLAMs) that are installed in the manholes.[27]

Frontier Communications
Nokia and Frontier Communications are to deploy in a pilot program in Connecticut.[28]

M-net Telekommunikations GmbH
The Bavarian operator M-net Telekommunikations GmbH announced on 2017-05-30 that it is launching services in Munich. M-net claims to be the first carrier running in Germany.[29]

On 2017-08-22 AT&T announced it is launching services in 22 US metro markets.[30]

Openreach launched their service for the UK on 16th January 2017.


  1. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m Van der Putten, Frank (2014-05-20). "Overview of Summary overview and timeline" (PDF) Summit 2014. Retrieved 2014-10-09.

  2. Jump up^ "100+ Mb/s 400 meters" News. Fast Net News. February 4, 2015.

  3. Jump up^ "G.9700 : Fast access to subscriber terminals ( - Power spectral density specification". ITU-T. 2014-12-19. Retrieved 2015-02-03.

  4. Jump up^ "G.9701 : Fast access to subscriber terminals ( - Physical layer specification". ITU-T. 2014-12-18. Retrieved 2015-02-03.

  5. Jump up^ " broadband standard approved and on the market". ITU-T. 2014-12-05. Retrieved 2015-02-03.

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  13. Jump up to:a b c d " Moving Copper Access into the Gigabit Era". Huawei. Retrieved 2014-02-13.

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  15. Jump up^ "ITU-T work programme - G.9701 (ex - Fast Access to Subscriber Terminals ( - Physical layer specification". ITU-T. 2014-01-07. Retrieved 2014-02-14.

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  17. Jump up^ Ricknäs, Mikael (2013-12-12). "ITU standardizes 1Gbps over copper, but services won't come until 2015". IDG News Service. Archived from the original on 2014-02-13. Retrieved 2014-02-13.

  18. Jump up^ "Suddenly, is 500 meters, not 200 meters".

  19. Jump up to:a b c d e Wilson, Steve (2012-08-14). " a question of commercial radio, manholes, prison sentences and indoor vs outdoor engineers". Retrieved 2014-02-13.

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  22. Jump up^ Gurrola, Elliott (2014-08-01). "PON/xDSL Hybrid Access Networks"PON/xDSL Hybrid Access Networks. Elsevier Optical Switching and Networking. 14: 32–42. doi:10.1016/j.osn.2014.01.004.

  23. Jump up^ Talbot, David (2013-07-30). "Adapting Old-Style Phone Wires for Superfast Internet: Alcatel-Lucent has demonstrated fiber-like data-transfer speeds over telephone wiring—but will ISPs adopt it?". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 2014-02-13.

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  28. Jump up^ "Nokia and Frontier Communications deploy technology to expand gigabit ultra-broadband access across Connecticut"Nokia. Retrieved 21 June 2017.

  29. Jump up^ M-net (2017-05-30). " Deutschlandpremiere in München".

  30. Jump up^ Sean Buckley (2017-08-22). "AT&T begins marketing Gfast services in 22 U.S. metro markets".